Tasked with providing education to underserved populations in isolated regions, it delivers diploma, bachelor’s, and master’s programs through distance and hybrid learning systems, using media like radio and TV broadcasts, videotapes, and, increasingly, the internet. Like Australia, Malaysia is a popular choice for mobile Indonesian students because of its geographic proximity. High school enrolment rate : Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. The effort effectively doubled the education budget between 2000 and 2006, to reach $14 billion or 16 percent of all government spending. Under the National Education Law, religious instruction in any one of the six official religions is required when requested by a student. In 2017, merely 65 institutions (less than 2 percent of all HEIs) obtained the highest level of accreditation in Indonesia, while quality at the remaining institutions varied—some HEIs had no accredited programs at all. Pupils who complete junior secondary education at religious schools under the purview of the Ministry of Religious Affairs receive the equivalent certificate of completion of madrasah tsanawiyah (MTs). Until the mid-2000s, Indonesia’s teachers were able to practice with merely a diploma in education. It was composed of units of BPTRI and UVI; the name Universiteit Indonesia was later changed to Universitas Indonesia. Although he is a Muslim, he said he believed that religion belonged in the private sphere and should not be imposed. But, in the past 10 to 15 years, schools have increasingly adopted policies that favor Islam, the majority religion, ordering Muslim students to wear Muslim-styled uniforms either every day or at least on Fridays, when Muslims go to mosque. 20 percent in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and D, approximately 27 percent under the age of 15, ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF), Sunni Islam’s most prestigious university, recent depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah against the U.S. dollar, Times Higher Education World University Ranking, Education in the United States of America, Photocopy of the degree certificate (Diploma, Sarjana, Magister, Doktor)—submitted by the applicant, Academic Transcript—sent directly by the institution attended, For completed doctoral programs, an official letter confirming the conferral of the degree—sent directly by the institution, Magister Manajemen (Master of Management). But … This large university-age population means that Indonesia has a substantial pool of potential international students. In fact, a recent survey conducted by AFS Intercultural Programs found that 81 percent of 13- to 18-year-olds in Indonesia had considered study abroad. It still has tremendous potential for further expansion, given that the country is already viewed as one of the world’s largest markets for mobile learning. Public Schools in Indonesia Increasing Go Islamic, Yenni Kwok wrote in the New York Times, “When Lies Marcoes heard that her daughter’s high school, in Bogor, Indonesia, required all female Muslim students to wear a head veil once a week, she was furious. Some institutions may have an additional summer semester from June to August. Remuneration for primary- and secondary-school teachers, although low, compares favorably with that in other Asian countries such as Malaysia, India, and Thailand. One of the most serious problems for graduates with advanced degrees, however, is finding employment suited to their newly acquired education. Indonesia’s higher education degree structure is defined in a logical numerical hierarchy. **, Indonesian institutions of higher education offer a wide range of programs. Beyond that, Malaysia is a relatively affordable study destination compared with Western countries, yet it has a sizable number of foreign branch campuses of reputable Western universities. As the World Bank’s Country Director for Indonesia Rodrigo A. Chaves has noted, the “middle class holds the key to unlocking the potential of Indonesia. There also are important regional universities in Sulawesi Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Jawa Barat, and Papua. The first university was not opened until 1920. Overall, the e-learning market in Indonesia has grown by 25 percent between 2010 and 2015. It has an academic, research-oriented track and a more applied vocational or professional track. Students who complete junior secondary education and earn sufficiently high grades can enroll in either general academic senior secondary school (sekolah menengah atas, or SMA), or vocational upper-secondary schools (sekolah menengah kejuruan, or SMK, discussed below).  Consider that more than 40 percent of Indonesia’s population is under the age of 25, with approximately 27 percent under the age of 15; the median age is approximately 30.5 years. The system was elitist and accessible only to the select few. The percentage of people who have access to electricity has jumped from 55 percent in 1993 to 98 percent in 2016. About half of those who finish elementary school finish middle school. This unfulfilled demand is likely to yield increases in tertiary enrollment rates in the long term, current unemployment rates among university graduates notwithstanding. Training in medical specialties takes another three to five years, depending on the specialty, and concludes with the award of a Spesialis diploma. In the PISA rankings, Indonesian students’ scores in math, reading and science lag behind the average of their peers. As a result, the number of school teachers at all levels of school education holding a Sarjana shot up from 37 percent in 2003 to 90 percent in 2016. “If they want to learn about their religion, they can learn about it at home,” he said in an interview. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It includes credentials called Sarjana at the undergraduate level (Sarjana Strata 1 – S1), graduate level (Sarjana Strata Dua – S2, commonly called Magister), and doctoral level (Sarjana Strata 3 – S3, commonly called Doktor). Some S2 programs are taught in English. To improve quality standards, the Indonesian government in the mid-1990s created a National Board for Higher Education Accreditation (Badan Akreditasi Nasioanal Perguruan Tinggi, or BAN-PT), an independent body under the MOE. This institution enrolls about 37,000 students per year. Although she herself was a Muslim and a graduate of an Islamic university in Jakarta, she went to the school to object to the imposition of the religious uniform in a state school. Recent economic growth rates have been relatively low compared with growth rates before the 1997 Asian financial crisis, but GDP has nevertheless increased steadily by more than 5 percent for most of the past eight years. This trend has coincided with a 611 percent increase in Indonesian degree students studying in Saudi Arabia, from 254 in 2010 to 1,806 in 2017. Existing teachers were required to seek re-certification under the new requirements. However, Indonesian growth rates are dwarfed by those of smaller regional neighbors like Vietnam, where outbound student numbers mushroomed by nearly 960 percent between 1998 and 2017. Elementary school teachers required either a Diploma 2 or Diploma 3 kependidikan (education), whereas lower-secondary and upper-secondary school teachers needed at least a Diploma 3. It’s currently planned that students will also earn a series of formal vocational training certificates during the course of their studies, so that graduates and school dropouts alike can obtain qualifications of greater value in the labor market. The New Order regime made great efforts to expand educational opportunities while also influencing the curriculum, controlling student activities, and appointing pliant faculty members to administrative positions. If no religious instruction is available in accordance with the student’s faith, the student has the right to be excused from religious instruction. On the other hand, since the election of Donald Trump as president, the U.S. has become less popular according to Indonesian public opinion polls. Click here for a PDF file of the academic documents referred to below. The official age of entry is seven, but many pupils enter at the age of six. Islamic schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Even in the 1940s only about 4 percent of the Indonesian population could read. Other major universities include Catholic University in Bandung and the Institut Pertanian Bogor, in Bogor. However, since the end of the Suharto regime and the subsequent democratization of Indonesia, various functions of government have been decentralized and transferred to locally elected district governments. Tremendous progress was made toward the goal of universal education under Suharto. Minimum quality criteria include adequate infrastructure, funding and management structures, research output, high-level faculty qualifications, and graduation rates. The site has been created using Flash 4. Religion Is Diverse. The national medical curriculum includes an initial 3.5-year period of pre-clinical studies, followed by a two-year clinical phase and a mandatory one-year clinical internship after graduation. Hindu and Buddhist students, who don’t have their own religious teachers in the school, read their religious texts while sitting in the same rooms as their Muslim classmates reciting the Koran.”, Reasons for the Rise of Islamism in Indonesian Public Schools, Yenni Kwok wrote in the New York Times, ““The rise in such practices has affected teachers too. The majority of vocational schools specialize in the fields of technology and industry (86 percent) and business and management (76 percent). The vast majority of Indonesian higher education institutions (HEIs) are smaller private providers of lesser quality, while admission into public universities is highly competitive. Diploma programs are offered in vocational fields at a variety of institutions. In 2003 the unemployment rate for college graduates with the sarjana degree was approximately 20 percent, and 10 percent for graduates of professional schools. There were about 3,000 academic programs slated for evaluation in 2009 alone. “This shows that the majority is always right, while the minority has to adapt.” [Source: Yenni Kwok, New York Times, June 15, 2014 ^+^], “Educators like Ms. Supolo have urged the Education Ministry to take action against the spread of Islamic uniforms and other religious distinctions. According to the Institute of International Education’s Open Doors data, the number of Indonesian students decreased from 11,625 in 2000/01 to a low of 6,942 in 2010/11, before increasing modestly again to 8,776 in 2016/17. Education and Social Welfare. Credentials awarded include the Magister Sains, (Master of Science), Magister Teknik (Master of Technology), or Magister Humaniora (Master of Humanities), and so on. According to a ranking of education systems and worker productivity in Asia by Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy Indonesia was last out of 12 countries. In 2013, BAN-PT had an estimated backlog of 20 percent in accreditation decisions, causing the organization to adopt “emergency measures” to “give institutions temporary accreditation at “C” level (the pass level) without any accreditation process.” Among accredited programs, public institutions tend to achieve far better results: While 40.6 of accredited programs at public HEIs received a rating of “A” in 2013, only 6.4 percent of programs at private institutions did. The Doktor is a research qualification that represents the highest academic credential in the Indonesian system. There’s also a degree called Sarjana Kedoktoren earned after four or five years, but this credential does not qualify physicians to practice as such without additional study. The majority of elementary schools—more than 80 percent in 2010—are public, but private institutions play an important role in Indonesia’s school system, especially at the secondary level: 57 percent of schools at the lower-secondary level and 70 percent at the upper-secondary level were private in 2010, even though a majority of students were enrolled in public institutions. Education in Indonesia is compulsory and provided free of charge at public schools from grades one to nine (six years of elementary education and three years of junior secondary education). Alongside the requirement that all HEIs have mandatory internal quality assurance centers, external program accreditation by BAN-PT remains the main tool of quality assurance until today, even though the accreditation process has undergone various changes. For example, Indonesian children who lack access to physical schools can complete junior high school in open “radio schools.” In higher education, distance education was pioneered by the public Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka), which evolved from a small fringe university when it was founded in 1984 to a mega-university of more than 500,000 students today. But they are not soldiers; they are educated professionals sent to remote corners of the archipelago to teach as volunteers in some of Indonesia's most impoverished schools. According to the MHRT, there were 573 universities in Indonesia as of 2018, more than 90 percent of them private. *, Some say Indonesia has one of the worst education systems in the world. In the formal system, TVET starts at the upper-secondary level and is offered by both secular vocational schools (SMKs) and religious schools (MAKs). 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