Converted for the duration of hostilities into materiel and ammunition makers, firms like Baldwin Locomotive Works, produced artillery and armament with much of the the same machinery used to build its … During World War II the Vatican was in a difficult position, torn between its Christian duties and the need to cooperate with Fascist Italy which granted the Vatican its independence in 1929. Field cipher systems such as the U.S. Signal Corps’s cipher disk mentioned above, lacked sophistication (and security), however. However, during World War II, small, time-only wristwatches were used by the German military and issued in large numbers. The Autobahn network totaled 2,128 km at the end of World War II. Radio and recording allowed a unified soundtrack of the conflict shared across continents and oceans. Construction on new sections started again in 1953, with 144 km added between 1953 and 1958, bringing the total to 2,272 km. Developments during World Wars I and II. During the first two years of World War I, code systems were used for high-command and diplomatic communications, just as they had been for centuries, and cipher systems were used almost exclusively for tactical communications. Secret web of tunnels used as emergency factories by Nazis as they hid from Allied bombs during World War II opened as a museum. Radar During World War II . Rather than designing a specification for a wristwatch and then farming out the design and manufacturing to local watch manufacturers via a tender, as was the norm in the United States, the German government instead provided requirements to a contractor, who in turn … This article was written by John C. McManus and originally appeared in the May 2005 issue of World War II. The bombardment at Ellwood was the first shelling of the mainland United States during World War II, and it sparked an invasion panic among an American populace not used dealing with war … Both sides of the war began to practice the art of propaganda in an effort to inspire their people or demoralize their enemies. During World War II, battles were won by the side that was first to spot enemy airplanes, ships, or submarines. After using aerial photos to pinpoint a suspected location and ground-penetrating radar to confirm it, an excavator revealed the bunker, which had been swallowed by sand since World War II. During World War II, New Zealand became increasingly worried about the potential of a full-scale Japanese invasion, in which New Zealand would … As World War II began to rage across Europe and the Pacific, communication technology had spread to most of the world. 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